Psychostimulant use disorder is a major public health issue, and despite the scope of the problem there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments. There would be tremendous utility in development of a treatment that could help patients both achieve and maintain abstinence. Previous work from our group has identified granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a neuroactive cytokine that alters behavioral response to cocaine, increases synaptic dopamine release, and enhances cognitive flexibility. Here, we investigate the role of G-CSF in affecting extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and perform detailed characterization of its proteomic effects in multiple limbic substructures. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with PBS or G-CSF during (1) extinction or (2) abstinence from cocaine self-administration, and drug seeking behavior was measured. Quantitative assessment of changes in the proteomic landscape in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were performed via data-independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry analysis. Administration of G-CSF during extinction accelerated the rate of extinction, and administration during abstinence attenuated cue-induced cocaine-seeking. Analysis of global protein expression demonstrated that G-CSF regulated proteins primarily in mPFC that are critical to glutamate signaling and synapse maintenance. Taken together, these findings support G-CSF as a viable translational research target with the potential to reduce drug craving or seeking behaviors. Importantly, recombinant G-CSF exists as an FDA-approved medication which may facilitate rapid clinical translation. Additionally, using cutting-edge multiregion discovery proteomics analyses, these studies identify a novel mechanism underlying G-CSF effects on behavioral plasticity.