Golden-Angle Radial MRI: Basics, Advances, and Applications

Li Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


In recent years, golden-angle radial sampling has received substantial attention and interest in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) community, and it has become a popular sampling trajectory for both research and clinical use. However, although the number of relevant techniques and publications has grown rapidly, there is still a lack of a review paper that provides a comprehensive overview and summary of the basics of golden-angle rotation, the advantages and challenges/limitations of golden-angle radial sampling, and recommendations in using different types of golden-angle radial trajectories for MRI applications. Such a review paper is expected to be helpful both for clinicians who are interested in learning the potential benefits of golden-angle radial sampling and for MRI physicists who are interested in exploring this research direction. The main purpose of this review paper is thus to present an overview and summary about golden-angle radial MRI sampling. The review consists of three sections. The first section aims to answer basic questions such as: what is a golden angle; how is the golden angle calculated; why is golden-angle radial sampling useful, and what are its limitations. The second section aims to review more advanced trajectories of golden-angle radial sampling, including tiny golden-angle rotation, stack-of-stars golden-angle radial sampling, and three-dimensional (3D) kooshball golden-angle radial sampling. Their respective advantages and limitations and potential solutions to address these limitations are also discussed. Finally, the third section reviews MRI applications that can benefit from golden-angle radial sampling and provides recommendations to readers who are interested in implementing golden-angle radial trajectories in their MRI studies. Evidence Level: 5. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-62
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • continuous acquisition
  • golden-angle
  • motion robustness
  • radial sampling
  • self-navigation
  • stack-of-stars


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