Glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity in peritumoral hyperplasia in liver: Case Report of a Metastatic Paraganglioma with Focal Nodular Hyperplasia-Like Changes and Review of an Additional 54 Liver Masses

Bronwyn H. Bryant, Maryam J. Zenali, Paul E. Swanson, Melissa P. Upton, Matthew M. Yeh, Carlos Cuevas, James O. Park, Maria Westerhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objectives: Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and peritumoral hyperplasia in the liver exhibit increased immunoreactivity for glutamine synthetase (GS). We observed FNH-like changes with map-like GS staining surrounding a metastatic paraganglioma and sought to determine how often such changes occur around primary and metastatic liver lesions. Methods: We performed GS immunohistochemistry in liver cases of 20 metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), 21 metastatic colon carcinomas (CCs), seven hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and six FNHs and assessed lesions for size, degree of fibrosis (scored 1-3), and peritumoral hyperplasia. Results: Most NEC or CC cases had few peritumoral hyperplastic features. Three NECs, two CCs, and one HCC (13%) had patchy GS staining at the periphery of the lesions. One CC case had both histologic and immunohistochemical peritumoral hyperplasia. Conclusions: Peritumoral hyperplasia or FNH-like changes are uncommon findings around primary or metastatic lesions in the liver. GS immunohistochemistry assists in distinguishing true peritumoral hyperplasia from mass effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-261
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Focal nodular hyperplasia
  • Glutamine synthetase
  • Liver metastasis
  • Mass effect
  • Paraganglioma
  • Peritumoral hyperplasia

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