In this study, glucuronidation of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) by human liver microsomes and the effects of aliphatic alcohols and opiates were investigated. Paracetamol glucuronidation was optimised for various incubation conditions. Ten different aliphatic alcohols and the opiates morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine were analysed as inhibitors of paracetamol glucuronidation. Furthermore, the effects of paracetamol on morphine-3 and codeine glucuronidation were investigated. Enzyme kinetic analysis was carried out via determination of the parameters Km, Vmax, Ki and the type of inhibition. Except for methanol and ethanol, all investigated alcohols inhibited glucuronidation of paracetamol. Ki values ranged between 4.59 mmol/l (n-pentanol) and 340.54 mmol/l (2-propanol). Extent of inhibition strongly depended on the structure and clearly increased with the length of the alkyl chain. All tested opiates inhibited paracetamol glucuronidation with Ki values between 4.02 mmol/l (dihydrocodeine) and 11.44 mmol/l (morphine). Paracetamol itself turned out to be an inhibitor of opiate glucuronidation. The apparent Ki values were 4.62 mmol/l (inhibition of morphine-3 glucuronidation) and 9.44 mmol/l (inhibition of codeine glucuronidation). A mixed inhibition type was determined for all substances. The in vitro studies show a great inhibition potential for the analysed substances. Transferring the results to the in vivo situation, a higher liver toxicity of paracetamol can be assumed, if concomitantly a lot of alcoholic beverages with congener alcohols - e.g. fruit schnapps or whisky - are drunk or if opiates - as analgesics or narcotics - are taken in higher doses.
- CAS 103-90-2
- Congener alcohols
- Paracetamol, enzyme inhibition, enzyme kinetics, glucuronidation