OBJECTIVE The superior effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on glucose control compared with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is confounded by the greater weight loss after RYGB. We therefore examined the effect of these two surgeries on metabolic parameters matched on small and large amounts of weight loss. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Severely obese individuals with type 2 diabetes were tested for glucose metabolism, b-cell function, and insulin sensitivity after oral and intravenous glucose stimuli, before and 1 year after RYGB and LAGB, and at 10% and 20% weight loss after each surgery. RESULTS RYGB resulted in greater glucagon-like peptide 1 release and incretin effect, compared with LAGB, at any level of weight loss. RYGB decreased glucose levels (120 min and area under the curve for glucose) more than LAGB at 10% weight loss. However, the improvement in glucose metabolism, the rate of diabetes remission and use of diabetes medications, insulin sensitivity, and b-cell function were similar after the two types of surgery after 20% equivalent weight loss. CONCLUSIONS Although RYGB retained its unique effect on incretins, the superiority of the effect of RYGB over that of LAGB on glucose metabolism, which is apparent after 10% weight loss, was attenuated after larger weight loss.