Neoadjuvant therapies can improve tolerability, reduce tumor volume to facilitate surgery, and assess subsequent treatment response. Therefore, there is much enthusiasm for expanding the benefits of cancer therapies to the neoadjuvant setting to reduce recurrence and improve survival in patients with localized or locally advanced genitourinary (GU) cancer. This approach is clinically pertinent because these treatments are administered primarily to treatment-naive patients and can elicit the greatest drug response. In addition, the results are not impacted by other anticancer treatments. While neoadjuvant therapies have been the standard treatment for bladder cancer in the past, they are presently restricted to clinical trials for renal and prostate cancer (PCa); however, changes are imminent. Precision neoadjuvant therapies will be ushered in by biomarker-stratified neoadjuvant trials with appropriate survival endpoints and comprehensive correlative and imaging studies. This review discusses neoadjuvant studies in GU malignancies and how they inform future study design considerations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1041-1057
Number of pages17
JournalTrends in Cancer
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • FDA
  • biomarker stratified trials
  • correlative studies
  • early disease setting
  • genitourinary cancer
  • logitudinal analysis
  • neoadjuvant therapies
  • pathological responses
  • precision therapies
  • resistance biomarkers
  • response
  • survival endpoints
  • tumor microenvironment


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