Genetic risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage

Amanda M. Carpenter, Inder P. Singh, Chirag D. Gandhi, Charles J. Prestigiacomo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the greatest morbidity and mortality of all stroke subtypes. Established risk factors for ICH include hypertension, alcohol use, current cigarette smoking, and use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents. Familial aggregation of ICH has been observed, and the heritability of ICH risk has been estimated at 44%. Few genes have been found to be associated with ICH at the population level, and much of the evidence for genetic risk factors for ICH comes from single studies conducted in relatively small and homogenous populations. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of genetic variants associated with primary spontaneous ICH. Two variants of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE)-which also contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-are the most likely candidates for variants that increase the risk of ICH. Other promising candidates for risk alleles in ICH include variants of the genes ACE, PMF1/SLC25A44, COL4A2, and MTHFR. Other genetic variants, related to haemostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and the CNS microenvironment, have been linked to ICH in single candidate gene studies. Although evidence for genetic contributions to the risk of ICH exists, we do not yet fully understand how and to what extent this information can be utilized to prevent and treat ICH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-49
Number of pages10
JournalNature Reviews Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


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