Genetic Factors and the Intestinal Microbiome Guide Development of Microbe-Based Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Louis J. Cohen, Judy H. Cho, Dirk Gevers, Hiutung Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations

Abstract

The intestinal microbiota is a dynamic community of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that mediates mucosal homeostasis and physiology. Imbalances in the microbiome and aberrant immune responses to gut bacteria can disrupt homeostasis and are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in humans and colitis in mice. We review genetic variants associated with IBD and their effects on the intestinal microbiome, the immune response, and disease pathogenesis. The intestinal microbiome, which includes microbial antigens, adjuvants, and metabolic products, affects the development and function of the intestinal mucosa, influencing inflammatory responses in the gut. Therefore, strategies to manipulate the microbiome might be used in treatment of IBD. We review microbe-based therapies for IBD and the potential to engineer patients’ intestinal microbiota. We discuss how studies of patients with IBD and mouse models have advanced our understanding of the interactions between genetic factors and the gut microbiome, and challenges to the development of microbe-based therapies for IBD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2174-2189
Number of pages16
JournalGastroenterology
Volume156
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Host Genetics
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Microbiome
  • Mucosal Immunity
  • Preclinical Therapies

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