Generation of human brain organoids for mitochondrial disease modeling

Stephanie Le, Laura Petersilie, Gizem Inak, Carmen Menacho-Pando, Karl W. Kafitz, Agnieszka Rybak-Wolf, Nikolaus Rajewsky, Christine R. Rose, Alessandro Prigione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Mitochondrial diseases represent the largest class of inborn errors of metabolism and are currently incurable. These diseases cause neurodevelopmental defects whose underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. A major roadblock is the lack of effective models recapitulating the early-onset neuronal impairment seen in the patients. Advances in the technology of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enable the generation of three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids that can be used to investigate the impact of diseases on the development and organization of the nervous system. Researchers, including these authors, have recently introduced human brain organoids to model mitochondrial disorders. This paper reports a detailed protocol for the robust generation of human iPSC-derived brain organoids and their use in mitochondrial bioenergetic profiling and imaging analyses. These experiments will allow the use of brain organoids to investigate metabolic and developmental dysfunctions and may provide crucial information to dissect the neuronal pathology of mitochondrial diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere62756
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number172
StatePublished - Jun 2021


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