Gender Differences in the Research Productivity of Radiation Oncology Resident Graduates in the United States: 2015 to 2019

Brianna M. Jones, Jared P. Rowley, Kunal K. Sindhu, Eric J. Lehrer, Kristin Hsieh, Anthony D. Nehlsen, Sheryl Green, Karyn A. Goodman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: It is well-documented that gender disparities exist in academic radiation oncology departments. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender differences in research productivity during residency among recent graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States (US). Methods and Materials: We used several publicly available sources to create a database of US radiation oncology residents who graduated between 2015 and 2019. We systematically collected gender information from the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System National Provider Identifier Registry and Medicare claims registry. Postresidency employment information was collected using several publicly available sources. PubMed was queried to identify first-author publications of residents. A secondary analysis of metadata including impact factor, number of citations, modified Hirsch index (h index), and type of publication was performed. A multivariable linear regression was performed to evaluate the effect of gender on research productivity during residency. Results: There were 910 total graduates identified during this period and who were entered into this database, of whom all had available gender information. Female trainees comprised 29.0% (n = 264) of RO residents and had fewer first-author publications and citations, had lower mean modified h index, and were published in journals with lower impact factors. On multivariable linear regression analysis, female gender was independently associated with decreased total number of publications (P = .005), mean number of citations (P < .001), and modified h index (P = .001) when controlling for residency size and advanced (PhD or master's) degrees. Conclusions: In the US, female RO trainees had lower research productivity, which was not explained by advanced degrees or residency size. A significant gender gap in trainee research productivity persists, which has known implications in terms of academic achievement, promotions, and career trajectory. Future interventions to improve resident research productivity and mentorship are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101135
JournalAdvances in Radiation Oncology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2023


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