Gender Difference Is Associated with Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection: An Insight from a Meta-Analysis

Hiroki Ueyama, Toshiki Kuno, Hisato Takagi, Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Samin K. Sharma, Annapoorna S. Kini, Stamatios Lerakis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a novel infection now causing pandemic around the world. The gender difference in regards to the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 infection has not been well described thus far. Our aim was to investigate how gender difference can affect the disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Data Sources: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted from December 1, 2019, to March 26, 2020. An additional manual search of secondary sources was conducted to minimize missing relevant studies. There were no language restrictions. Study Selection: Studies were included in our meta-Analysis if it was published in peer-reviewed journals and recorded patient characteristics of severe versus nonsevere or survivor versus nonsurvivor in coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Data Extraction: Two investigators independently screened the search, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the study. Data Synthesis: Our search identified 15 observational studies with a total of 3,494 patients (1,935 males and 1,559 females) to be included in our meta-Analysis. Males were more likely to develop severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection compared with females (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07-1.60). There was no significant heterogeneity (I2= 12%) among the studies. Conclusions: This meta-Analysis suggests that the male gender may be a predictor of more severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Further accumulation of evidence from around the world is warranted to confirm our findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E0148
JournalCritical Care Explorations
Issue number6
StatePublished - 19 Jun 2020


  • coronavirus disease 2019
  • gender
  • severity


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