GEMINI-supported spinal cord transplantation for the treatment of chronic spinal paralysis: Overview and initial clinical translation

X. P. Ren, P. Henderson, C. Y. Kim, S. Canavero

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

There is at present no biological cure for chronic paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI). Work conducted by U.S. neurosurgeon L. Walter Freeman in the 1960s suggests that a permanent, biological cure is possible, at least in several cases of chronic SCI, by removing the most damaged portion of the spinal cord en bloc, and connecting the two free undamaged ends, after spinal (vertebral) shortening. Alternatively, we recently suggested filling the post-extirpation gap with a segment of normal cord. In both cases, a technology that allows the functional reconnection of the severed ends is necessary. The GEMINI spinal cord fusion (SCF) protocol described for the first time in 2013 is such technology. We briefly review the components of the GEMINI protocol and describe its application in the context of the first clinical trial testing autologous cord grafting in chronic SCI patients (Shirres-GEMINI approach).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury
PublisherElsevier
Pages313-324
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780128224984
ISBN (Print)9780128224991
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Electrical stimulation
  • GEMINI
  • Polyethylene glycol
  • Spinal cord fusion
  • Spinal cord injury

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