Functional Neuroradiology of Traumatic Brain Injury

Giacomo Boffa, Eytan Raz, Matilde Inglese

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


About 50-60 million people worldwide sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year [1]. In the United States alone, 1.7 million people sustain a head trauma each year, and an estimated 275,000 Americans are admitted to hospital yearly following TBI. Of all head-injured patients, approximately 10% sustain fatal brain injury [2]. Lifelong disability is common in those who survive: In the USA, around 5.3 million people are estimated living with a TBI-related disability, and in the European Union, approximately 7.7 million people have residual disabilities after TBI [2]. The incidence of TBI worldwide is rising, mainly owing to injuries associated with the increased use of motor vehicles in the middle-income and low-income countries. In high-income countries, a shift in the population affected by TBI towards older age groups has been observed in recent decades, as a result of increased life expectancy and greater mobility in the elderly. The leading cause of TBI is therefore injury related to falls, followed by motor vehicle or traffic collisions, and external cause of being “struck by or against.” The most widely used clinical classification of brain trauma is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) [3], which allows the recording of the level of consciousness through the assessment of eye, motor, and verbal responses. According to GCS, TBI can be dived into: (1) mild (GCS score of 13-15); (2) moderate (GCS score of 12-9); severe (GCS scores of 8 or less. Most traumatic brain injuries are mild in severity: the annual incidence of mild TBI is 224 per 100,000 person-years, almost 10 times the incidence of moderate TBI and 17 times the incidence of severe TBI [4]. Despite the term “mild” TBI, there is increasing evidence that even minimal traumatic brain injuries may result in persistent and disabling physical (headache, dizziness, fatigue) and cognitive (attention, memory, executive function deficits) sequelae. This group of symptoms has been termed post-concussion symptoms and when these symptoms persist for months or longer they have been referred to as the post-concussion syndrome [5, 6]. Particularly at risk to mild TBI are males between 15 and 24 years old, and individuals in lower socioeconomic groups.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFunctional Neuroradiology
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Clinical Applications, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9783031109096
ISBN (Print)9783031109089
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Arterial spin labeling (ASL)
  • Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
  • Functional MRI (fMRI)
  • Perfusion MRI
  • Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)


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