Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a variety of physical anomalies, bone marrow failure, and an increased risk for malignancy. FA cells exhibit chromosomal instability and are hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). FA is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and can be functionally divided into at least five different complementation groups (A-E). We previously described the use of a retroviral vector expressing the FAC cDNA in the complementation of mutant hematopoietic cells from FA-C patients. This vector is currently being tested in a clinical trial of ex vivo hematopoietic progenitor cell transduction. The FA-A group accounts for over 65% of all FA cases, and the FAA cDNA was recently identified by both expression and positional cloning techniques. We report here the transduction and phenotypic correction of lymphoblastoid cell lines from four unrelated FA-A patients, using two amphotropic FAA retroviral vectors. Expression of the FAA transgene was adequate to normalize cell growth, cell-cycle kinetics, and chromosomal breakage in the presence of MMC. We then analyzed the effect of retroviral vector transduction on hematopoietic progenitor cell growth. After FAA transduction of mutant progenitor cells, either colony number or colony size increased in the presence of MMC. In addition, FAA but not FAC retroviral transduction markedly improved colony growth of progenitor cells derived from an unclassified FA patient. FAA retroviral vectors should be useful for both complementation studies and clinical trials of gene transduction.