Functional changes in prefrontal cortex following frequency-specific training

Lana Bach-Morrow, Francesco Boccalatte, Antonio DeRosa, David Devos, Carmen Garcia-Sanchez, Matilde Inglese, Amgad Droby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Numerous studies indicate a significant role of pre-frontal circuits (PFC) connectivity involving attentional and reward neural networks within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pathophysiology. To date, the neural mechanisms underlying the utility of non-invasive frequency-specific training systems in ADHD remediation remain underexplored. To address this issue, we created a portable electroencephalography (EEG)-based wireless system consisting of a novel headset, electrodes, and neuro program, named frequency specific cognitive training (FSCT). In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study we investigated the training effects in N = 46 school-age children ages 6–18 years with ADHD. 23 children in experimental group who underwent FCST training showed an increase in scholastic performance and meliorated their performance on neuropsychological tests associated with executive functions and memory. Their results were compared to 23 age-matched participants who underwent training with placebo (pFSCT). Electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected from participants trained with FSCT showed a significant increase in 14–18 Hz EEG frequencies in PFC brain regions, activities that indicated brain activation in frontal brain regions, the caudate nucleus, and putamen. These results demonstrate that FSCT targets specific prefrontal and striatal areas in children with ADHD, suggesting a beneficial modality for non-invasive modulation of brain areas implicated in attention and executive functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20316
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


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