Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles: Reconstruction and refinements

Anthony D. Holmes, John G. Meara, Adam R. Kolker, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, Geoffrey L. Klug

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles are herniations of the intracranial contents through a defect in the skull at the junction of the frontal and ethmoidal bones. They are generally classified as nasofrontal, nasoethmoidal, and naso-orbital, although there may be some overlap or multiplicity. The records of 35 patients treated for frontoethmoidal encephaloceles were examined. Of these, 12 cases with complete and accurate medical records were evaluated in detail. The successful correction of frontoethmoidal encephaloceles was shown to depend on the following: a detailed understanding of the pathological anatomy (such as interorbital hypertelorism rather than true orbital hypertelorism and the presence of secondary trigonocephaly), careful planning of the bone movements to correct these deformities, and attention to detail regarding the placement of scars, positioning of the medial canthi, and the nasal reconstruction. Avoiding the "long-nose" deformity often seen after repair should be a priority. In general, the authors recommend a one-stage repair with both a transcranial and external approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6-18
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Encephaloceles
  • Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles
  • Hypertelorism
  • Long nose deformity
  • Nasal reconstruction
  • Orbital reconstruction


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