From bench to bedside: How the tumor microenvironment is impacting the future of immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma

Jonathan Anker, Justin Miller, Nicole Taylor, Natasha Kyprianou, Che Kai Tsao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape for many cancer types. The treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has especially evolved in recent years, from cytokine-based immunotherapies to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although clinical benefit from immunotherapy is limited to a subset of patients, many combination-based approaches have led to improved outcomes. The success of such approaches is a direct result of the tumor immunology knowledge accrued regarding the RCC microenvironment, which, while highly immunogenic, demonstrates many unique characteristics. Ongoing translational work has elucidated some of the mechanisms of response, as well as primary and secondary resistance, to immunotherapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the RCC immunophenotype with a specific focus on how preclinical and clinical data are shaping the future of immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3231
JournalCells
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Immunology
  • Immunotherapy
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Tumor microenvironment

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