Frameless stereotaxy for surgery of the epilepsies: Preliminary experience. Technical note

A. Olivier, I. M. Germano, A. Cukiert, T. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


Frameless stereotactic techniques used in conjunction with three- dimensional images allow accurate planning and performance of a variety of neurosurgical procedures. The authors have used the frameless stereotactic Allegro Viewing Wand system to provide real-time correlation of the operating field and computerized images in 42 neurosurgical operations, including 31 epilepsy procedures. The system consists of an image-processing computer that creates three-dimensional and triplanar images; a mobile computer to display reformatted magnetic resonance images; and a hand-guided, articulated, position-sensing arm with a probe. At the start of the operation, the probe identifies the patient's facial and scalp features and correlates these with the computerized images. The position-sensing arm can then guide the operation and locate anatomical structures and lesions of interest. This system can be used to advantage in performing smaller craniotomies and intraoperatively locating anatomical structures and lesions to be removed. Postoperative magnetic resonance images demonstrate that this technique was accurate to within 3 mm in measuring the anteroposterior resection of fixed structures, such as hippocampus and corpus callosum. Disadvantages include longer preoperative preparation for data analysis and lack of both real-time computer analysis of tissue removal and angiographic data display. Preliminary experience suggests that the viewing wand system's advantages outweigh the disadvantages, and it is most helpful as an adjunctive navigational device in the microsurgical treatment of epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)629-633
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1994


  • epilepsy
  • frameless stereotaxis
  • instrumentation
  • operative technique


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