FMD and SCAD: Sex-Biased Arterial Diseases with Clinical and Genetic Pleiotropy

Esther S.H. Kim, Jacqueline Saw, Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Malissa Wood, Santhi K. Ganesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and spontaneous coronary artery dissection are both sex-biased diseases disproportionately affecting women over men in a 9:1 ratio. Traditionally known in the context of renovascular hypertension, recent advances in knowledge about FMD have demonstrated that FMD is a systemic arteriopathy presenting as arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and dissection in virtually any arterial bed. FMD is also characterized by major cardiovascular presentations including hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Similar to FMD, spontaneous coronary artery dissection is associated with a high prevalence of extracoronary vascular abnormalities, including FMD, aneurysm, and extracoronary dissection, and recent studies have also found genetic associations between the two diseases. This review will summarize the relationship between FMD and spontaneous coronary artery dissection with a focus on common clinical associations, histopathologic mechanisms, genetic susceptibilities, and the biology of these diseases. The current status of disease models and critical future research directions will also be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1958-1972
Number of pages15
JournalCirculation Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - 11 Jun 2021


  • aneurysm
  • biology
  • fibromuscular dysplasia
  • genetics
  • prevalence


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