Flourishing and the Prioritization of Workplace Elements in General Surgery Residents

General Surgery Research Collaborative on Resident Wellbeing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: To explore and begin to operationalize workplace elements that influence general surgery (GS) resident wellbeing. Tailoring workplace wellbeing interventions is critical to their success. Occupational science has revealed that a person-centered approach to identifying positive and negative workplace influences can inform tailoring while accounting for individual differences. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied to the surgical training environment. Methods: A national sample of GS residents from 16 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education training programs ranked the importance of workplace elements via an anonymous survey. Latent profile analysis was performed to identify shared patterns of workplace element prioritization and their relation to levels of flourishing, a measure of global wellbeing. Results: GS trainee respondents (n = 300, 34% response rate – average for studies with this sample population) expressed a hierarchy of workplace element importance which differed by gender and race. “Skills to manage stress” and “a team you feel a part of” were prioritized higher by non-males than males. Residents of color and residents underrepresented in medicine, respectively, prioritized “recognition of work/effort” and “skills to manage stress” more than White and overrepresented in medicine residents. Flourishing prevalence varied by 40% with small differences in the specific profile of workplace element prioritization. Conclusions: Differences in prioritization of workplace elements reveal subtle but important differences that may guide the design of wellbeing interventions for different populations within surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-495
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Flourishing
  • Job strain
  • Latent profile analysis
  • Mindfulness for surgeons
  • Surgical education
  • Surgical resident wellbeing


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