Fibrogenic actions of acetaldehyde are β-catenin dependent but Wingless independent: A critical role of nucleoredoxin and reactive oxygen species in human hepatic stellate cells

Jaime Arellanes-Robledo, Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, José Alfredo Domínguez-Rosales, Zamira Helena Hernández-Nazara, Francesco Ramirez, M. Raj Lakshman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigated whether the fibrogenic actions of acetaldehyde, the immediate oxidation product of ethanol, are mediated via Wingless (WNT) and/or β-catenin pathways in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC). First, we show that both β-catenin small inhibitory RNA and a dominant negative-MYC expression vector markedly down-regulated the expressions of fibrogenic genes in freshly isolated HSC. We further show that acetaldehyde up-regulated platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta mRNA and protein expressions ranging from 4.0- to 7.2-fold (P<0.001). Acetaldehyde induced MYC and collagen type-1 alpha-2 mRNA and protein expressions were WNT independent because DKK1, an antagonist of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, completely failed to block these inductions. Acetaldehyde increased phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3B) protein by 31% (P<0.01), whereas phospho-β-catenin protein decreased by 50% (P≤0.01). Significantly, in contrast to 43% (P<0.01) inhibition of β-catenin nuclear translocation in nucleoredoxin (NXN)-overexpressed HSC, acetaldehyde profoundly stimulated β-catenin nuclear translocation by 51%, (P<0.01). Acetaldehyde also increased the cellular reactive oxygen species level 2-fold (P<0.001) with a concomitant 2-fold (P<0.001) increase in 4-hydroxynonenal adducts. Conversely, there was a 44% decrease (P<0.001) in glutathione levels with a concomitant 76% (P<0.001) decrease in the level of NXN/ disheveled (DVL) complex. Based on these findings, we conclude that actions of acetaldehyde are mediated by a mechanism that inactivates NXN by releasing DVL, leading to the inactivation of GSK3B, and thereby blocks β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. Thus, the stabilized β-catenin translocates to the nucleus where it up-regulates the fibrogenic pathway genes. This novel mechanism of action of acetaldehyde has the potential for therapeutic interventions in liver fibrosis induced by alcohol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1487-1496
Number of pages10
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume65
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2013

Keywords

  • Acetaldehyde
  • Hepatic stellate cells
  • Nucleoredoxin
  • Oxidative stress
  • β-Catenin

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