Background: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) occur frequently and pose a substantial economic burden on the US healthcare system. The landscape for the treatment of CDI is evolving. Aim: To elucidate the most cost-effective strategy for managing recurrent CDI. Methods: A decision tree analysis was created from a modified third-party payer’s perspective to compare the cost-effectiveness of five strategies for patients experiencing their first CDI recurrence: oral vancomycin, fidaxomicin, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) via colonoscopy, FMT via oral capsules, and a one-time infusion of bezlotoxumab with vancomycin. Effectiveness measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALY). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY was set. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Base-case analysis showed that FMT via colonoscopy was associated with the lowest cost at $5250 and that FMT via capsules was also a cost-effective strategy with an incremental cost–effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $31205/QALY. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that FMT delivered by oral capsules and colonoscopy was comparable cost-effective modalities. At its current cost and effectiveness, bezlotoxumab was not a cost-effective strategy. Conclusions: FMT via oral capsules and colonoscopy is both cost-effective strategies to treat the first recurrence of CDI. Further real-world economic studies are needed to understand the cost-effectiveness of all available strategies.
- Fecal microbiota transplants
- Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections