Fast Real-Time Cardiac MRI: a Review of Current Techniques and Future Directions

Xiaoqing Wang, Martin Uecker, Li Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves as a clinical gold-standard non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of global and regional cardiac function. Conventional cardiac MRI is limited by the long acquisition time, the need for ECG gating and/or long breathhold, and insufficient spatiotemporal resolution. Real-time cardiac cine MRI refers to high spatiotemporal cardiac imaging using data acquired continuously without synchronization or binning, and therefore of potential interest in overcoming the limitations of conventional cardiac MRI. Novel acquisition and reconstruction techniques must be employed to facilitate real-time cardiac MRI. The goal of this study is to discuss methods that have been developed for real-time cardiac MRI. In particular, we classified existing techniques into two categories based on the use of non-iterative and iterative reconstruction. In addition, we present several research trends in this direction, including deep learning-based image reconstruction and other advanced real-time cardiac MRI strategies that reconstruct images acquired from real-time free-breathing techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-265
Number of pages14
JournalInvestigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Iterative SENSE
  • Motion-resolved image reconstruction
  • Non-Cartesian
  • Real-time cardiac MRI


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