Factors Associated With Non–Operative Management of Resectable Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Joshua Tseng, Timothy DiPeri, Yufei Chen, Anat Ben-Shlomo, Daniel Shouhed, Edward H. Phillips, Miguel Burch, Monica Jain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Surgery is the initial treatment of choice for patients with resectable adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). We sought to determine factors associated with non–operative management of resectable ACC. Methods: 2004-2016 National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried to identify patients with AJCC/ENSAT Stage I-III ACC. Patients who underwent surgery (S) were compared to those who did not undergo surgery (NS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with NS. Kaplan-Meier estimates used to assess survival. Results: Two thousand-seventy patients with Stage I-III ACC were identified, of which 17.5% were NS. 85.9% of NS patients were not offered surgery; 69.9% of NS patients did not receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. NS were older and less likely to receive care at an Academic center or high volume center (≥5 cases during the study period). NS patients were more likely to have advanced T stage and N1 disease. On multivariate regression, factors associated with lower odds of surgery include older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.06), T4 disease (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.05-10.68), and treatment at a community center (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.58-5.40). Overall median survival was significantly poorer for NS patients (50.4 versus 78.4 months, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Patients with locally advanced ACC are less likely to undergo an operation, while those treated at centers with more operative experience or Academic facilities are more likely to undergo an operation. As the surgery-first approach is the current standard of care for resectable ACC, these patients may be best served at high volume Academic facilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651-659
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Adrenocortical carcinoma
  • Disparities
  • NCDB
  • Surgery


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