Factor XI Inhibitors in Early Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis

Mattia Galli, Renzo Laborante, Luis Ortega-Paz, Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Domenico D'Amario, Davide Capodanno, Elena Tremoli, Charles Micheal Gibson, Roxana Mehran, Dominick J. Angiolillo

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14 Scopus citations


Background Phase II randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on factor(F)XI inhibitors have shown promising results but they were burdened by low statistical power for clinical outcomes. Methods We performed a systematic review andmeta-analysis of RCT comparing FXI inhibitors versus other anticoagulants (enoxaparin or direct oral anticoagulants, DOACs) or versus placebo on top of antiplatelet therapy. Results Eight RCTs testing FXI inhibitors (ISIS 416858, osocimab, abelacimab, milvexian, asundexian) and enrolling 9,216 patients were included. Compared with enoxaparin, FXI inhibitors were associated with reduced any-bleeding (risk ratio [RR]: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.77), no difference inmajor bleeding (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.41-2.28), and reduced trial-defined efficacy endpoint (RR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.49-0.79), the latter driven by the high-dose regimens. Compared with DOACs, FXI inhibitors were associated with a trend toward reduced any-bleeding (RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.31-1.38) and no difference in major bleeding (RR: 1.03, 95%CI: 0.22-4.78) or in trial-defined efficacy endpoint (RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 0.88-1.70). Compared with placebo, FXI inhibitors were associated with increased any bleeding (RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43) and a trend toward increased major bleeding (RR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.75-1.93), both driven by high-dose regimens, with no difference in trialdefined efficacy endpoint (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92-1.13). Conclusion Results of this meta-analysis on FXI inhibitors suggest increased safety and efficacy compared with enoxaparin and modest increased safety compared with DOACs. The use of FXI inhibitors in adjunct to antiplatelet therapy versus placebo appears to be associated with a dose-dependent increase in bleeding without any difference in efficacy. Study registration This study is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022367706).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)576-584
Number of pages9
JournalThrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number6
StatePublished - 24 Dec 2022


  • FXI inhibitors
  • bleeding
  • direct oral anticoagulant
  • low-molecular-weight heparin
  • placebo


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