Extrapyramidal signs and Alzheimer's disease prognosis in a multiethnic, community-based sample of demented elders

Anton J. Kociolek, Kayri K. Fernandez, Zhezhen Jin, Stephanie Cosentino, Carolyn W. Zhu, Yian Gu, Yaakov Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Extrapyramidal signs (EPS) are a common feature of Alzheimer's disease associated with worse outcomes in observational studies of dementia. Less research has been conducted on ethnic minority and non-clinic-based populations. Methods: One hundred and forty-two multiethnic community-dwelling participants with dementia were selected. Adjusted Cox models were fitted for mortality, cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination ≤10), functional (Blessed Dementia Rating Scale ≥10), and dependency (needs full-time care) endpoints with baseline EPS as predictor. Results: Thirty-seven participants (26.06%) had EPS at baseline. EPS predicted more rapid time to death (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49, 5.42), and functional endpoint (HR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.75, 8.62) but not cognitive and dependency endpoints. No evidence of interaction by ethnicity, age, sex, education, or apolipoprotein E ε4 polymorphism was found. Discussion: Our results partially confirm previous studies on predominantly White, clinic-based samples. Further research is needed to better understand the etiological role of EPS in AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1465-1473
Number of pages9
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Volume17
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cognitive impairment
  • dementia
  • dependency
  • extrapyramidal signs
  • functional impairment
  • survival analysis

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