Expression patterns of FHL/SLIM family members suggest important functional roles in skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system

Po Hsien Chu, Pilar Ruiz-Lozano, Qiang Zhou, Chenleng Cai, Ju Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

151 Scopus citations


LIM domain containing proteins play critical roles in animal development and cellular differentiation. Here, we describe the cloning and expression patterns of three members of the four and a half LIM domain-only protein family, FHL1, 2, and 3, from mouse. A comparison of embryonic expression patterns of these three highly-related genes indicates that they are expressed in an overlapping pattern in the developing cardiovascular system, and skeletal muscle. In adult tissues, the three genes are expressed in a predominant and overlapping manner in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Of the three genes, FHL2 appears to have the most restricted expression pattern during development, in heart, blood vessels, and skeletal muscle. Expression in heart is highest in cardiac septa and in the region adjacent to the atrio-ventricular ring, suggesting a potential role in septation or conduction system development. In the heart, FHL1expression was observed strongly in developing outflow tract, and to a lesser extent in myocardium. FHL3 displays low and ubiquitous expression during mouse development. Cardiac ventricular expression of FHL1, but not FHL2 or FHL3, was upregulated in two mouse models of cardiac hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these data indicate the potential importance of this FHL family in the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system and striated muscle, and suggest that FHL1 may play a role in the development of heart disease. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-265
Number of pages7
JournalMechanisms of Development
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac hypertrophy
  • Cardiovasculature
  • Four and half LIM domains
  • MLP
  • SLIM
  • Skeletal muscle


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