With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral agents, the incidence of HIV-associated nephropathy has decreased. Currently, HIV-infected patients live much longer and often suffer from comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that concurrent HIV infection and diabetes mellitus may have a synergistic effect on the incidence of chronic kidney disease. To address this, we determined whether HIV-1 transgene expression accelerates diabetic kidney injury using a diabetic HIV-1 transgenic (Tg26) murine model. Diabetes was initially induced with low-dose streptozotocin in both Tg26 and wild-type mice on a C57BL/6 background, which is resistant to classic HIV-associated nephropathy. Although diabetic nephropathy is minimally observed on the C57BL/6 background, diabetic Tg26 mice exhibited a significant increase in glomerular injury compared with nondiabetic Tg26 mice and diabetic wild-type mice. Validation of microarray gene expression analysis from isolated glomeruli showed a significant upregulation of proinflammatory pathways in diabetic Tg26 mice. Thus, our study found that expression of HIV-1 genes aggravates diabetic kidney disease.
- diabetic nephropathy