Background: The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, on the World Trade Center (WTC) led to intense fires and a massive dense cloud of toxic gases and suspended pulverized debris. In the subsequent years, following the attack and cleanup efforts, a cluster of chronic health conditions emerged among First Responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero for prolonged periods and were repeatedly exposed to high levels of WTC particulate matter (WTCPM). Among those are neurological complications which may increase the risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life. Objective: We hypothesize that WTCPM dust exposure affects the immune cross-Talking between the periphery and central nervous systems that may induce brain permeability ultimately promoting AD-Type phenotype. Methods: 5XFAD and wild-Type mice were intranasally administered with WTCPM dust collected at Ground Zero within 72h after the attacks. Y-maze assay and novel object recognition behavioral tests were performed for working memory deficits and learning and recognition memory, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis in the blood and hippocampus was performed and confirmed by RT qPCR. Results: Mice exposed to WTCPM dust exhibited a significant impairment in spatial and recognition short and long-Term memory. Furthermore, the transcriptomic analysis in the hippocampal formation and blood revealed significant changes in genes related to immune-inflammatory responses, and blood-brain barrier disruption. Conclusion: These studies suggest a putative peripheral-brain immune inflammatory cross-Talking that may potentiate cognitive decline, identifying for the first time key steps which may be therapeutically targetable in future studies in WTC FR.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Journal of Alzheimer's Disease|
|State||Published - 2023|
- Blood-brain barrier
- World Trade Center particulate matter
- cognitive decline