Exposure assessment and risk characterisation of aflatoxins in randomly collected rice samples from local markets of Hyderabad, India

Vakdevi Validandi, Srinivasu Kurella, Sumitra Gorain, Yamuna Sagubandi, Sathish Kumar Mungamuri, Sukesh Narayan Sinha

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Aflatoxin (AF) poisoning of staple foods, such as rice, is caused by fungal contamination by Aspergillus species. These AFs are genotoxic, carcinogenic and suppress the immune system. Hence, the present study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of AF contamination in rice samples collected from local markets of Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The rice samples collected were analysed for AF by using HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Based on AF contamination levels and dietary intake of rice, the health risk was assessed by the margin of exposure (MOE) and liver cancer risk in adults, adolescence and children. The percentage detected contamination with AFB1 and AFB2 of rice samples was 54% and 34%, with the concentration ranging between 0–20.35 µg/kg and 0–1.54 µg/kg, respectively. Three rice samples exceeded the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) total AF acceptable limit of 15 µg/kg. The average MOE values were 53.73, 50.58 and 35.69 (all <10,000) for adults, adolescence and children, respectively. The average liver cancer risk associated with rice consumption in the population of Hyderabad was found to be 0.27, 0.28 and 0.40 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases/year/100,000 individuals in adults, adolescence and children, respectively. This study revealed an adverse health risk to population of Hyderabad due to consumption of AF contaminated rice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)664-674
Number of pages11
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Rice
  • aflatoxins
  • estimated daily intake
  • liver cancer risk
  • margin of exposure

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