Expert Guidance on Off-Label Use of Hybrid Closed-Loop Therapy in Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes

Emily D. Szmuilowicz, Carol J. Levy, Elizabeth O. Buschur, Sarit Polsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Automated insulin delivery (AID) systems have established benefits in terms of glycemic control, health outcomes, and quality of life and are strongly recommended for people with type 1 diabetes outside of pregnancy. While evidence for use of investigational AID systems during pregnancy is promising, data and guidance are still needed regarding use of commercially available systems during pregnancy. Unfortunately, none of the hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems that are currently available in the United States have glucose targets that are as aggressive as pregnancy glycemic targets, none have a pregnancy-specific algorithm, and none are approved for use during pregnancy. As such, any use of these systems during pregnancy is considered off-label in the United States and would be "assisted"by provider/user techniques. Despite these limitations, many women conceive while using clinically available HCL systems and may be hesitant to cease use during pregnancy. Achievement of strict pregnancy glycemic targets can be difficult, and it is conceivable that selective off-label use of clinically available HCL systems in some women could lead to improved glycemia. We herein offer expert guidance based on clinical experience and available case reports on how to identify appropriate candidates for HCL therapy in pregnancy, how to counsel pregnant women with diabetes on the potential risks and benefits of HCL therapy during pregnancy, and how to manage commercially available systems off-label throughout gestation in an assisted HCL approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-373
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • Automated insulin delivery
  • Hybrid closed-loop therapy
  • Insulin pump therapy
  • Pregestational diabetes
  • Pregnancy care
  • Pregnancy-associated diabetes


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