Exosomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A scoping review

Abhiraj D. Bhimani, Roshini Kalagara, Susmita Chennareddy, Christopher P. Kellner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Vasospasm is a common complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), causing increased ischemia and tissue injury, and is implicated as a major risk factor for poor outcomes. The success of current treatments for vasospasm is limited, with limited efficacy and unclear clinical benefits. Exosomes, vesicles that carry small molecules such as miRNA, have been theorized as a potential vasospasm treatment. In this study, we aim to survey the current literature discussing the role of exosomes in the setting of SAH. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, we performed a scoping review evaluating the role of exosomes in the treatment of SAH. The search was conducted using PubMed and Scopus, and all original research papers studying exosomal profiles of SAH research subjects or SAH therapy were eligible for inclusion. Results: After screening and full text review, seven papers were selected for final inclusion. Of these, two studies analyzed the expression profile of endogenous exosomes after SAH. Four papers identified and characterized miRNA-based exosomal therapies to attenuate early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. One paper discussed the role of protein overexpression in exosome delivery of miRNA for EBI after SAH. Interestingly, all identified papers studying exosomal therapy demonstrated anti-apoptotic or anti-inflammatory effects of miRNA exosomes acting via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB or HDAC3/NF-κB pathways. Conclusion: Identified studies demonstrate potential neuroprotective benefits of miRNA-based exosomal treatment of EBI and SAH. Findings warrant further research investigating the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role of exosomal miRNA delivery in SAH models, specifically targeting the common pathway identified by the authors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-65
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Exosome
  • Hemorrhage
  • Stroke
  • Therapy
  • Vasospasm


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