Background Treatment of vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) has improved greatly since the inception of endovascular treatment. Transvenous embolization (TVE) is an attractive option to achieve complete obliteration. Objective To review the literature on TVE of VOGM and then analyze our practice's unique experience and evolving treatment strategies over 30 years. Methods A retrospective review of our clinical database for patients with the diagnosis of VOGM treated between January 2004 and August 2021 was performed. A literature review of 49 relevant articles was also carried out. Results TVE in VOGM has evolved with initial introduction as a transtorcular (TT) approach, which then lost favor to transarterial embolization (TAE). TAE has been considered the more favorable approach in most high-volume centers. In more recent times, the transvenous embolization (TVE) approach has been revisited as a last treatment to achieve a cure after a series of TAE treatments. We presently favor beginning treatment with staged TAE to reduce flow to the lesion and, importantly, shrink the draining vein. This then allows for the performance of TVE with the Chapot pressure cooker technique (CPCT) with coils and liquid embolic embolization. Conclusions TT TVE itself carries a high degree of risk and is most highly associated with long-term morbidities and mortality. Traditional transfemoral/transjugular TVE approaches are safe and effective in simple fistulas with a small venous pouch; however, we believe that the CPCT is the safest technique as a last-stage treatment for its security in avoiding reflux and obtaining occlusion of the small perforators.
- Arteriovenous Malformation
- Vascular Malformation