Evolution of the polypill concept and ongoing clinical trials

Jose M. Castellano, Gines Sanz, Valentin Fuster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death worldwide. What was once thought to be an endemic disease of high income countries has become a global epidemic, as low and middle income countries have adopted Western lifestyles, to the point that noncommunicable diseases are now the main cause of death in these regions, above and beyond communicable diseases, malnutrition, and injury. As a result, a large proportion of individuals at high 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event live in low- and middle-income countries, and the most of all cardiovascular events occur in developing countries. A large amount of evidence supports the use of pharmacological treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular death in this population, including antiplatelet drugs, β-blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, however, the efficacy of cardiovascular event prevention is hampered by several problems, including inadequate prescription of medication, poor adherence to treatment, limited availability of medications, and unaffordable cost of treatment. Here we examine the use of fixed-dose combination therapy, and how this therapy could improve adherence to treatment, reduce the cost, and improve treatment affordability in low-income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)520-526
Number of pages7
JournalCanadian Journal of Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2014


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