Evidence-Based Assessment of Congenital Heart Disease Genes to Enable Returning Results in a Genomic Study

Emily L. Griffin, Shannon N. Nees, Sarah U. Morton, Julia Wynn, Nihir Patel, Vaidehi Jobanputra, Scott Robinson, Stephanie M. Kochav, Alice Tao, Carli Andrews, Nancy Cross, Judith Geva, Kristen Lanzilotta, Alyssa Ritter, Eileen Taillie, Alexandra Thompson, Chris Meyer, Rachel Akers, Eileen C. King, James F. CnotaRichard W. Kim, George A. Porter, Martina Brueckner, Christine E. Seidman, Yufeng Shen, Bruce D. Gelb, Elizabeth Goldmuntz, Jane W. Newburger, Amy E. Roberts, Wendy K. Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common major congenital anomaly and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic evidence supports a role of genetics in the development of CHD. Genetic diagnoses can inform prognosis and clinical management. However, genetic testing is not standardized among individuals with CHD. We sought to develop a list of validated CHD genes using established methods and to evaluate the process of returning genetic results to research participants in a large genomic study. Methods: Two-hundred ninety-five candidate CHD genes were evaluated using a ClinGen framework. Sequence and copy number variants involving genes in the CHD gene list were analyzed in Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium participants. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic results were confirmed on a new sample in a clinical laboratory improvement amendments-certified laboratory and disclosed to eligible participants. Adult probands and parents of probands who received results were asked to complete a post-disclosure survey. Results: A total of 99 genes had a strong or definitive clinical validity classification. Diagnostic yields for copy number variants and exome sequencing were 1.8% and 3.8%, respectively. Thirty-one probands completed clinical laboratory improvement amendments-confirmation and received results. Participants who completed postdisclosure surveys reported high personal utility and no decision regret after receiving genetic results. Conclusions: The application of ClinGen criteria to CHD candidate genes yielded a list that can be used to interpret clinical genetic testing for CHD. Applying this gene list to one of the largest research cohorts of CHD participants provides a lower bound for the yield of genetic testing in CHD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E003791
JournalCirculation. Genomic and precision medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • ClinGen
  • congenital heart disease
  • gene curation


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