Evaluation of optimal color for stent identification in a hemorrhagic environment

Z. Okhunov, H. Singh, D. Lee, G. Haramis, J. C. Rosales, S. Raisoni, M. Gupta, J. Landman

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate


Introduction: The endoscopic deployment and extraction of endoluminal stents, such as ureteral stents, is commonplace in contemporary medical management of many diseases. In a hemorrhagic environment, endoscopic identification of a stent can be challenging. To date, no study has evaluated the optimal color for endoscopic stent identification. Methods: Eight different colored stents were placed in a simulated bladder model. Each stent color was evaluated in saline and three progressively more concentrated bloody environments. A flexible cystoscope was used to make 15-second video clips of the stents in each environment. Participants viewed the videos in a random sequence. Participants were asked to identify the color of each stent, and rate the identification on a 10-point scale. Logistic regression models were used to model the relationship between identification, stent color, environment, and experience. Results: Forty-seven participants reviewed the videos. In clear and mildly bloody environments, blue stents had the highest identification (p < 0.06, p = 0.001, respectively). In moderately bloody environments, yellow stents had the highest identification (p < 0.01), whereas silver stents had the highest identification in severely bloody settings (p = 0.004). Blue and green stents were identified most commonly and received the highest identification scores in all environments. Level of training and experience with endoscopy were not significantly associated with the correct response rate. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the color of a stent plays an important role in endoscopic identification. Our results suggest that blue and green colors offer superior visibility in both clear and hemorrhagic environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)762
Number of pages1
JournalInternational braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes


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