Evaluating the role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) or intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in left atrial appendage occlusion: a meta-analysis

Krishna Akella, Ghulam Murtaza, Mohit Turagam, Sharan Sharma, Bader Madoukh, Anish Amin, Rakesh Gopinathannair, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Purpose: Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is increasingly common among periprocedural imaging modalities used during complex cardiac procedures. We sought to perform a meta-analysis comparing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and ICE in endocardial left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO). Methods: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar regarding abstracts and manuscripts using keywords: atrial fibrillation, left atrial appendage occlusion, Watchman, Amplatzer Cardiac Plug, Amulet, intracardiac echocardiography, and transesophageal echocardiography from their inception to July 12, 2019. Data extraction was performed using standard form for the following: title, year of publication, sample size, comorbid conditions, LAAO device, type of pre-procedural imaging, intraprocedural imaging, and clinical outcomes including the following: acute procedural success, fluoroscopy, and total procedure time and complications. Results: A total of 42 relevant studies were screened resulting in inclusion of 8 observational studies comparing TEE and ICE in endocardial LAAO. Outcomes assessed including procedural success (RR 1.00, 95% CI (0.97–1.03, p = 0.98)), complications (RR 0.77, 95% CI (0.52 to 1.15, p = 0.20)), fluoroscopy time (mean difference − 0.40, 95% CI (−3.12–2.32, p = 0.77)), and procedural time (mean difference − 8.02, 95% CI (−22.81 to 6.76, p = 0.29)) were found to be similar between both groups. Conclusions: While TEE is the gold standard for perioperative imaging with LAAO, ICE is a feasible and safe alternative that reduces exposure to general anesthesia and associated potential risks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • ACP
  • Amulet
  • ICE
  • Intracardiac echocardiography
  • LAAO
  • Left atrial appendage occlusion
  • TEE
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram
  • Watchman


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