Eugenol and capsaicin exhibit anti-metastatic activity: Via modulating TGF-β signaling in gastric carcinoma

Arnab Sarkar, Subrata Das, Ashikur Rahaman, Anupam Das Talukdar, Shamee Bhattacharjee, Deba Prasad Mandal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is considered to be a key player in gastric cancer metastasis, and the inhibition of the TGF-β/SMAD4 signaling pathway may be a novel strategy for therapeutic interventions in cancer. Here, the anti-metastatic activity of two phytochemicals, eugenol and capsaicin, has been studied, and their potential to antagonize TGF-β has been investigated in gastric cancer cells. Both the phytochemicals exhibited anti-metastatic activity by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway independent of P21 or P53, with capsaicin proving to be more potent than eugenol. However, unlike eugenol, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the TGF-β signaling pathway and metastasis was found to be dependent on SMAD4, which was validated in SMAD4-knocked down AGS cell and SMAD4-null SW620 cell line. Furthermore, the use of recombinant TGF-β and TGF-β receptor inhibitor LY2109761 confirmed that the anti-metastatic activity of eugenol is partially and that of capsaicin is principally mediated through the TGF-β signaling pathway. Identifying phytochemicals with the potential to inhibit cancer metastasis by targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway has immense scope for developing a therapeutic strategy against cancer metastasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9020-9034
Number of pages15
JournalFood and Function
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


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