Erythroid enucleation: a gateway into a “bloody” world

Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Erythropoiesis is an intricate process starting in hematopoietic stem cells and leading to the daily production of 200 billion red blood cells (RBCs). Enucleation is a greatly complex and rate-limiting step during terminal maturation of mammalian RBC production involving expulsion of the nucleus from the orthochromatic erythroblasts, resulting in the formation of reticulocytes. The dynamic enucleation process involves many factors ranging from cytoskeletal proteins to transcription factors to microRNAs. Lack of optimum terminal erythroid maturation and enucleation has been an impediment to optimum RBC production ex vivo. Major efforts in the past two decades have exposed some of the mechanisms that govern the enucleation process. This review focuses in detail on mechanisms implicated in enucleation and discusses the future perspectives of this fascinating process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Hematology
StatePublished - Mar 2021


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