Epitope profiling reveals binding signatures of SARS-CoV-2 immune response in natural infection and cross-reactivity with endemic human CoVs

Caitlin I. Stoddard, Jared Galloway, Helen Y. Chu, Mackenzie M. Shipley, Kevin Sung, Hannah L. Itell, Caitlin R. Wolf, Jennifer K. Logue, Ariana Magedson, Meghan E. Garrett, Katharine H.D. Crawford, Uri Laserson, Frederick A. Matsen, Julie Overbaugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

A major goal of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efforts is to elicit antibody responses that confer protection. Mapping the epitope targets of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is critical for vaccine design, diagnostics, and development of therapeutics. Here, we develop a pan-coronavirus phage display library to map antibody binding sites at high resolution within the complete viral proteomes of all known human-infecting coronaviruses in patients with mild or moderate/severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We find that the majority of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are targeted to the spike protein, nucleocapsid, and ORF1ab and include sites of mutation in current variants of concern. Some epitopes are identified in the majority of samples, while others are rare, and we find variation in the number of epitopes targeted between individuals. We find low levels of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity in individuals with no exposure to the virus and significant cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses (CoVs) in convalescent sera from patients with COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109164
JournalCell Reports
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 25 May 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • cross-reactivity
  • epitopes
  • phage-display
  • serology
  • variants

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