Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the genomic expression and cellular processes without altering the DNA sequence. In bacteria, epigenetic mechanisms facilitate responses to changing environmental conditions along with enhanced functionality and cellular adaptations. Mutations in the mediators of epigenetic pathways cause phenotypic alterations. The major epigenetic modifications in bacteria include DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of proteins. These molecular changes orchestrate bacterial virulence, cell growth, DNA repair, and interactions with eukaryotic hosts. Despite the availability of tools detecting epigenetic modifications, the mechanistic knowledge underlying these processes remains limited in bacteria. Given that the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is a high risk, these epigenetic pathways could serve as a new therapeutic target. This article integrates molecular and structural bases of epigenetic functions, which would help design highly selective tools for understanding the biology of enzymes toward developing new disease treatments.
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Epigenetics|
|Subtitle of host publication||The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Third Edition|
|Number of pages||13|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2022|
- DNA methylation
- Epigenetic mechanisms
- lysine acetylation and methylation