Epicardial Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery

Kenan W.D. Stern, Sitaram M. Emani, Giles J. Peek, Tal Geva, Shelby Kutty

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Epicardial echocardiography (e-echo) is a useful approach to intraoperative imaging for the smallest patients and in those with contraindications to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The e-echo has additional advantages that include improved visualization of anterior and vascular structures and three-dimensional capabilities. In this review, we describe the advantages and disadvantages of e-echo versus TEE for pediatric and congenital heart surgery with the goal of enhancing the utility and feasibility of the former among congenital heart surgeons. We also review the technique for performance of an e-echo and provide demonstrations of the images obtained for select lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-350
Number of pages8
JournalWorld journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2019


  • congenital heart surgery
  • epicardial echocardiography
  • intraoperative imaging


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