Eosinophilic esophagitis: Immune mechanisms and therapeutic targets

Dilawar Khokhar, Sahiti Marella, Gila Idelman, Joy W. Chang, Mirna Chehade, Simon P. Hogan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic inflammatory disease of the oesophagus and is clinically characterized by upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including dysphagia and esophageal food impaction. Histopathologic manifestations, which include intraepithelial eosinophilic inflammation and alterations of the esophageal squamous epithelium, such as basal zone hyperplasia (BZH) and dilated intercellular spaces (DIS), are thought to contribute to esophageal dysfunction and disease symptoms. Corroborative clinical and discovery science-based studies have established that EoE is characterized by an underlying allergic inflammatory response, in part, related to the IL-13/CCL26/eosinophil axis driving dysregulation of several key epithelial barrier and proliferative regulatory genes including kallikrein (KLK) serine proteases, calpain 14 (CAPN14) and anoctamin 1 (ANO1). The contribution of these inflammatory and proliferative processes to the clinical and histological manifestations of disease are not fully elucidated. Herein, we discuss the immune molecules and cells that are thought to underlie the clinical and pathologic manifestations of EoE and the emerging therapeutics targeting these processes for the treatment of EoE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1142-1156
Number of pages15
JournalClinical and Experimental Allergy
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • biologics
  • cytokines
  • eosinophilic esophagitis
  • eosinophils
  • mast cell


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