Enhanced Recovery Components for Posterior Lumbar Spine Fusion: Harnessing National Data to Compare Protocols

Murray Echt, Jashvant Poeran, Nicole Zubizarreta, Steven J. Girdler, Madhu Mazumdar, Leesa M. Galatz, Stavros G. Memtsoudis, Andrew C. Hecht, Saad Chaudhary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly used components of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) combinations and their relative effectiveness. Summary of Background Data: Data is lacking on use and effectiveness of various ERAS combinations which are increasingly used in spine surgery. Materials and Methods: Posterior lumbar fusion cases were extracted from the Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016). Seven commonly included components in spine ERAS protocols were identified: (1) multimodal analgesia, (2) tranexamic acid, (3) antiemetics on the day of surgery, (4) early physical therapy, (5) no urinary catheter, (6) no patient-controlled analgesia, and (7) no wound drains. Outcomes were: length of stay, "any complication," blood transfusion, and hospitalization cost. Mixed-effects models measured associations between the most common ERAS combinations and outcomes, separately for 2006-2012 and 2013-2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results: Among 97,419 (74%; 2006-2012) and 34,932 (26%; 2013-2016) cases ERAS component variations decreased over time. The most commonly used combinations included multimodal analgesia, antiemetics, early physical therapy, avoidance of a urinary catheter, patient-controlled analgesia and drains (10% n=9401 and 19% n=6635 in 2006-2012 and 2013-2016, respectively), and did not include tranexamic acid. Multivariable models revealed minor differences between ERAS combinations in terms of length of stay and costs. The most pronounced beneficial effects in 2006-2012 were seen for the second most commonly (compared with less often) used ERAS combination(s) in terms of blood transfusion (OR: 0.65; CI: 0.59-0.71) and "any complication" (OR: 0.73; CI: 0.66-0.80), both P<0.05. In 2013-2016 the third most commonly used ERAS combination showed the strongest effect: blood transfusion OR: 0.63; CI: 0.50-0.78, P<0.05. Conclusions: ERAS component variations decreased over time; maximum benefits were particularly seen in terms of transfusion and complication risk reduction. These findings may inform future ERAS utilization and clinical trials comparing various ERAS protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E194-E201
JournalClinical Spine Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • ERAS
  • enhanced recovery after surgery
  • multimodal analgesia
  • posterior lumbar fusion


Dive into the research topics of 'Enhanced Recovery Components for Posterior Lumbar Spine Fusion: Harnessing National Data to Compare Protocols'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this