Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are increasingly used in orthopedic surgery. Data are lacking on which combinations of ERAS components are (1) the most commonly used and (2) the most effective in terms of outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized claims data (Premier Healthcare, n = 1,539,432 total joint arthroplasties, 2006-2016). Eight ERAS components were defined: (A) regional anesthesia, (B) multimodal analgesia, (C) tranexamic acid, (D) antiemetics on day of surgery, (E) early physical therapy, and avoidance of (F) urinary catheters, (G) patient-controlled analgesia, and (H) drains. Outcomes were length of stay, “any complication,” and hospitalization cost. Mixed-effects models measured associations between the most common ERAS combinations and outcomes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results: In 2006-2012 and 2013-2016, the most common ERAS combinations were B/D/E/F/G/H (20%, n = 172,397) and B/C/D/E/F/G/H (17%, n = 120,266), respectively. The only difference between the most commonly used ERAS combinations over the years is the addition of C (addition of tranexamic acid to the protocol). The most pronounced beneficial effects in 2006-2012 were seen for combination A/B/D/E/F/G/H (6% of cases vs less prevalent ERAS combinations) for the outcome of “any complication” (OR 0.87, CI 0.83-0.91, P < .0001). In 2013-2016, the strongest effects were seen for combination B/C/D/E/F/G/H (17% of cases) also for the outcome of “any complication” (OR 0.86, CI 0.83-0.89, P < .0001). Relatively minor differences existed between ERAS protocols for the other outcomes. Conclusion: Despite varying ERAS protocols, maximum benefits in terms of complication reduction differed minimally. Further study may elucidate the balance between an increasing number of ERAS components and incremental benefits realized. Level of Evidence: III.
- enhanced recovery after surgery
- total hip arthroplasty
- total joint arthroplasty
- total knee arthroplasty