Spinal cord ischemia after endovascular thoracic aortic repair remains a significant risk. Previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair may increase this risk. This investigation reviews the occurrence of spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair of the descending thoracic aorta in patients with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. Over an 8-year period, 125 patients underwent endovascular exclusion of the thoracic aorta at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. Twenty-eight of these patients had previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. The 27 patients who underwent staged repairs all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage during and following repair. This population was analyzed for the complication of spinal cord ischemia and factors related to its occurrence. Mean follow-up was 19.3 months (range 1-61). Spinal cord ischemia developed in four of the 28 patients (14.3%) who underwent endovascular thoracic aortic repair with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair, while one of 97 patients (1.0%) developed ischemia among the remaining thoracic endograft population. One patient with concomitant abdominal aortic repair developed cord ischemia that manifested 12 hr following the procedure. The remaining three patients with previous abdominal aortic repair developed more delayed-onset paralysis ranging from the third postoperative day to 7 weeks following repair. Irreversible cord ischemia occurred in three patients, with full recovery in one patient. Major complications from CSF drainage occurred in one patient (3.7%). Spinal cord ischemia occurred at a markedly higher rate in patients with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. This risk continued beyond the immediate postoperative period. The benefit of perioperative and salvage CSF drainage remains to be determined.