Endotheliitis in Coronavirus Disease 2019–Positive Patients After Extremity Amputation for Acute Thrombotic Events

Nicole Ilonzo, Shivani Kumar, Nabeel Borazan, Thomas Hansen, Ajit Rao, John Lantis, Peter Faries, Windsor Ting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Both arterial and venous thrombotic events of the extremities occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, but the etiology of these events remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate pathology specimens of COVID-19-positive patients postamputation, who were found to have Rutherford 3 acute limb ischemia requiring amputation. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all vascular surgery emergency room and inpatient consultations in patients who presented to the Mount Sinai Health System from March 26, 2020, to May 10, 2020. Pathology specimens were examined using hematoxylin and eosin stain. The specimens were assessed for the following: inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies, mononuclear cells, small vessel congestion, and lymphocytic endotheliitis. Of the specimens evaluated, 2 patients with a known history of peripheral vascular disease were excluded. Results: Inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies were seen in all 4 patients and in 4 of 5 specimens. Mononuclear cells were found in 2 of 4 patients. Small vessel congestion was seen in all patients. Lymphocytic endotheliitis was seen in 1 of 4 patients. Conclusions: This study shows endotheliitis in amputation specimens of four patients with COVID-19 disease and Rutherford Class 3 acute limb ischemia. The findings in these patients is more likely an infectious angiitis because of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-215
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
StatePublished - Apr 2021


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