Endophenotypic Variations of Atopic Dermatitis by Age, Race, and Ethnicity

Takashi Nomura, Jianni Wu, Kenji Kabashima, Emma Guttman-Yassky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with unique clinical manifestations across age groups and race/ethnicities. Characteristic molecular mechanisms, known as endotypes, including IgE level, status of epidermal barrier genes, and differential cytokine axes activation in the background of TH2 upregulation, are also implicated. In adults, the TH22, TH17, and TH1 pathways are involved, and a weakened epidermal barrier is characteristic. In contrast, pediatric patients exhibit less TH1 activation, and defects in epidermal lipid metabolism contribute to their barrier defect. European American patients are characterized by higher differential TH2/TH22 activation, lower expression of the TH1/TH17 axes, and suppression of filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin gene expressions. Asian patients have accentuated polarity of the TH22/TH17 pathways, and also exhibit epidermal barrier defects despite relative maintenance of FLG and loricrin expression. African American patients do not exhibit FLG mutations and have distinct attenuation of TH17/TH1 axes activation. Dissecting the molecular basis of AD endotypes has provided an important framework upon which targeted therapeutics are being developed. An increased understanding of these subtypes and the alteration of biomarkers that correlate with disease can ultimately push AD treatment in an era of personalized medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1840-1852
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Age
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Dupilumab
  • Endotypes
  • Ethnicity
  • Genetics
  • Phenotypes
  • Precision medicine
  • Race


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