Abstract

Rationale: Emotion recognition is impaired in drug addiction. However, research examining the effects of cocaine use on emotion recognition yield mixed evidence with contradictory results potentially reflecting varying abstinence durations. Objectives: Therefore, we investigated emotion recognition and its neural correlates in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) parsed according to abstinence duration. Methods: Emotion recognition performance was compared between current cocaine users (CUD + , n = 28; cocaine-positive urine), short-term abstainers (CUD-ST, n = 23; abstinence < 6 months), long-term abstainers (CUD-LT, n = 20; abstinence ≥ 6 months), and controls (n = 45). A sample subset (n = 73) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to quantify regional gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry. Results: CUD + demonstrated greater difficulty recognizing happiness than CUD-ST and controls, and sadness and fear compared to controls (p < 0.01). For fear, CUD-ST also performed worse than controls (p < 0.01), while no differences emerged between CUD-LT and controls. Whole-brain analysis revealed lower GMV in the bilateral cerebellum in CUD + compared to CUD-LT and controls; a similar pattern was observed in the amygdala (CUD + < CUD-LT) (pFWE < 0.01). Collapsed across all participants, poorer recognition for happiness was associated with lower right cerebellar GMV (pFWE < 0.05). Conclusions: Emotion recognition is impaired with current cocaine use, and selective deficits (in fear) may persist with up to 6 months of abstinence. Lower cerebellar GMV may underlie deficits in positive emotion recognition. Interventions targeting emotional-social-cognitive deficits, especially among active users, may enhance treatment success for individuals with CUD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1019-1033
Number of pages15
JournalPsychopharmacology
Volume239
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • Abstinence
  • Amygdala
  • Cerebellum
  • Cocaine
  • Cocaine use disorder
  • Emotion recognition
  • Social cognition
  • Social function

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