Electrolyte Disorders

Eric E. Bondarsky, Aloke Chakravarti, Paru S. Patrawalla

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

Abstract

Electrolyte disorders are common in the ICU. Severe hyperkalemia is a life-threatening disorder, requiring immediate therapy. This chapter provides information on the prevention, prognosis, diagnosis, management, and treatment of electrolyte disorders, namely hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypophosphatemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia. The prevalence of hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients has been reported to be between 1% and 10%. Physical examination is often unremarkable in patients with hyperkalemia but in severe cases can reveal ascending muscle weakness or an irregular heart rhythm. All changes will reverse with treatment of the hyperkalemia. Treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia most often occurs in patients with renal dysfunction and revolves around dietary phosphate restriction (<900 mg/day) and phosphate binder therapy to decrease intestinal absorption.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMount Sinai Expert Guides
Subtitle of host publicationCritical Care
Publisherwiley
Pages513-536
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9781119293255
ISBN (Print)9781119293262
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020

Keywords

  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hypophosphatemia

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